Creating Natural Attraction

used in writing Natural Attraction.

Disclaimer: Natural Attraction is fiction and not an historical document. However, I used numerous sources in its creation.

  1. Books used to establish an historical framework for the story.

Pierce, Bessie Louise, A History of Chicago 1848-1871, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1940

A well-written history with focus on the everyday lives of citizens, this was an important resource for details of Chicago in 1871 including fashion, commerce, public transportation, reversing the Chicago river, and prevailing attitudes.

Swieringa, Robert P., Dutch Chicago A History of Hollanders in the Windy City, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, grand Rapids Michigan 2002

I used this for details of a church experience, Dutch names, and information on the lumber industry and pine boards.

Wade, Louise Carroll, Chicago’s Pride The Stockyards, Packingtown and Environs in the Nineteenth Century, University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 1987

Provided details of unsavory smells and the growth of the packinghouses

Elderidge, Niles, Darwin Discovering the Tree of Life, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 2005

I used this to establish some of Darwin’s basic ideas as well as ideas of reproduction and the distinction between soma and germ line cells. Also included in this book were details of his family life.

Desmond, Adrian and Moore, James, Darwin’s Sacred Cause, Houghton Mifflin Harcort, Boston New York, 2009

I used Darwins’ ideas on beauty and sex, his ideas about the intermingling of races, along with his family’s anti-slavery views. I used pages 139-146 and classification and racism in 19th century society.

Amy Kaplan and Donald E Pease, Cultures of United States Imperialism, Duke University Press, Durham and London, 1993

From this book I used the chapter “Terms of Assimilation” by Priscilla Wald.             In this chapter, efforts to assimilate Cherokee into the US were discussed    along with the frontier mentality.

Lewis, Robert M., From Traveling Show to Vaudeville Theatrical Spectacle in America 1830-1910, Johns Hopkins Press, 2003.

The chapter on Melodrama (pp 155-236) was used extensively when writing the play “Clementine and the Creature” that was a part of the Prospectors’ show.   I also used the chapter on The Wild West Show, mainly for the ideas that Buffalo Bill was “an undisciplined drunkard” who stole the idea of a wild west show and that his depictions of Native Americans were stereotypically false.   Also used to establish that the trend following melodrama was vaudeville/burlesque and to find names and name suggestions for forms of entertainment in Post Civil War US.

Souder, William , Under a Wild Sky, North Point Press, 2004

This book gave me details of Audubon’s life, including his preservation and mounting of specimens and his relationship with his wife Lucy. It also discussed his career successes (he did not meet with success until age 54) and his falsehoods about vultures and rattlesnakes.

Smith Duane A., Mining America: The Industry and the Environment, 1800-1980, University Press of Colorado, 1993.

I used Chapter One Booming, Digging, and Dumping.

Whitaker Jr., John O., National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1996.

Used for descriptions of mammals along with the on-line Animal Diversity Web. At times I encountered changes in Genus species designations and when this happened I selected the older reference. An exception to this was Bison bison which changed before 1871.

Clark ,Thomas Curtis and others, The American Railway Bramhall House, New York, 1972

Used to establish train lines and places trains went and the types of train cars.

Crawford, Anthony, The Butterfly Hunter The Life History of Henry Walter Bates University of Buckingham Press, Buckingham, UK, 2009

Used for basic information about the man who first described biological mimicry.


[Citellus elegans elegans] IN COLORADO An e-book with details about Genus Spermophlius which includes an account of keeping one for a pet.

Family History: Henry and Grace Boersma Family Historical Items complied August 2009.


  1. Articles referenced to add details.

Christopher Halin, “Forensic cultures in historical perspective: Technologies of witness, testimony, judgment (and justice?)” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44(2013)4-15.

This article was most helpful in setting the tone of the trial scene and the use           of expert witnesses and the use of forensic science. It outlined the role that           perception of moral character played in judgment. I was shocked to read      that the first forensic medical text, the 1788 Elements of Medical   Jurisprudence, by Samuel Farr contained the entrenched idea that a woman             could not get pregnant from a rape because “lust and pleasure were required for conception.” It was noted that this idea prevailed even into the 20th         Century.

H.W.Rhodehamel and E.H. Stuart “Atropine sulfate from Dataura Stamonium” The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Vol 13, No 3, 1921 218-220.

This publication established the connection between atropine and jimson      weed. It underwent some “time travel” back to 1871 but since distillation        and extraction were done by the alchemists I took the liberty. The research was first presented at an American Chemical Society meeting in     Chicago in Sept. 6-10, 1920.

Conway Zirkle,”Animals Impregnated by the Wind,” Isis, Vol.25, No.1 (May, 1936) pp.95-130.

An historical look at the notion of wind related pregnancy.

Buffalo Bill Cody “When Buffaloes Roamed in Herds”, originally published in 1898 and reprinted in The Saturday Evening Post, Vol 248(5 pp 89 1976.

After killing off most of the buffalo, Bill Cody gets nostalgic about all of his      bloodshed, including the time he stampeded a herd of buffalo into a wagon             train.

Nancy M. Peterson, “Monsters of the Plains” Wild West Feb, 2009, Vol 21 (5) p36-42.

Discusses the killing of the buffalo, for sport, for food, and to teach the Native            Americans who was boss.

  1. Symposia

Symposium A of the 125th Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science (April 19, 2013) was titled Overlapping Magisteria. I am thankful to the participants Loyal Rue and Jerry Soneson for the enlightening discussion on magisteria.

  1. On-line sources used to check things such as dates and genus species names.

Civil War profiteering

Lack of sexual dimorphism in vultures

Bill Cody

Cost of a prostitute in the Old West

Darwin and sloths


            Bradypus variegatus

Pros and Cons of Marriage written by Charles Darwin

Photography of the time      youve-seen-Amazing-19th-century-pictures-landscape-chartered-time.html

Ground squirrel courtship was obtained from the animal diversity web.    and   


Mound building ants

Mining accidents

Click to access Bulletin0310.pdf

Chicago fire

Fancy dress 1870

Darwin wedding and engagement


Click to access Teacher-Background-Information.pdf


Darwin’s voyage timeline

African American Union Solider

Darwin’s illness

Viceroy Monarch mimicry

Word check for historic accuracy

Chicago sidewalks and streets

On-line source for animal descriptions

Moon phases

Sod and Dugout Houses

word usage

Trunks, carpetbags–by-Louis-Vuitton,-c.-1859

otter swimming lesson



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